An Atlas of Scottish History to 1707

The present atlas has been almost fifteen years in the making. It contains not only maps, but also diagrams, plans, charts and tables covering the history of Scotland from the earliest times up to 1707, along with explanatory tests where these are necessary. The table of contents shows the range of matters covered in the atlas. Naturally, most of the atlas is concerned with the lands which were later to form in the kingdom of Scotland: but other maps deal with Scotland's contact with parts of Europe, a small part of Asia and the Americas.

A large part of Scottish history deals with invasions by whole peoples, such as the Angles from the south and the Scots from the west as well as the inward flow of military invaders from Agricola to Cromwell and the less frequent and less successful invasions of England by the Scots.

The development of the church and of the royal administration over the period is covered in large sections; and the section dealing with economic affairs is the largest of all. It includes such topics as the burghs, taxation and the trends in domestic and foreign trade.

It has been possible to keep the price of the atlas at a figure within the reach of students, because of the generosity of benefactors and because the contributors assigned their copyright in the atlas to its trustees who are recognised as a charity. As with the previous atlas, this new enlarged atlas is designed not only for students but also for anyone who has an interest in the development of Scotland.

The design associated with the atlas is a drawing by Anona Lyons of a rare whalebone plaque carved with horses heads. The plaque was part of a find excavated in November 1991 from the site of a Viking burial boat on island of Sanday in Orkney.

Seq. Page title
1 Cover
2 Title page
3 [Page 3]
4 [Page 4]
5 Table of contents
6 [Page 6]
7 [Page 7]
8 [Page 8]
9 [Page 9]
10 [Page 10]
11 [Page 11]
12 [Page 12]
13 [Page 13]
14 [Page 14]
15 [Page 15]
16 [Page 16]
17 [Page 17]
18 Introduction
19 [Page 19]
20 [Page 20]
21 [Page 21]
22 [Page 22]
23 Introductory: Scotland - geography in history
24 Introductory: The location and shape of Scotland
25 [Page 25]
26 Introductory: Routeways
27 [Page 27]
28 Introductory: Glaciation
29 [Page 29]
30 Introductory: Land and sea level changes
31 [Page 31]
32 Introductory: The shaping of settlements
33 [Page 33]
34 Introductory: The siting of settlements
35 [Page 35]
36 Introductory: Subsistence potential of the land
37 [Page 37]
38 Introductory: Climatic process
39 [Page 39]
40 Introductory: Regional climates
41 [Page 41]
42 Introductory: Climate changes
43 [Page 43]
44 [Page 44]
45 Introductory: Interaction of natural and anthropogenic processes
46 Introductory: Provinces and districts
47 Introductory: Scotland from abroad
48 [Page 48]
49 Introductory: Administrative regions
50 [Page 50]
51 [Page 51]
52 Introductory: Territorial extent of Scotland
53 Introductory: Appendix - coinage
54 [Page 54]
55 Events to about 850: Introduction
56 Events to about 850: The Roman Empire and Roman Britain
57 [Page 57]
58 Events to about 850: Northern Britain according to Ptolemy
59 Events to about 850: Roman Scotland in the first century (Flavian period)
60 [Page 60]
61 [Page 61]
62 Events to about 850: Roman Scotland in the mid-second century (Antonine period)
63 [Page 63]
64 [Page 64]
65 Events to about 850: Roman Scotland in the late second to fourth centuries
66 [Page 66]
67 [Page 67]
68 Events to about 850: Roman frontiers
69 [Page 69]
70 Events to about 850: Pictish and earlier archaeological sites
71 [Page 71]
72 Events to about 850: Pictish and British place-names
73 [Page 73]
74 Events to about 850: Pictish territorial divisions
75 Events to about 850: Pictish monuments
76 [Page 76]
77 [Page 77]
78 [Page 78]
79 Events to about 850: Imported pottery 400 to 1000
80 Events to about 850: Gaelic place-names
81 [Page 81]
82 [Page 82]
83 Events to about 850: Anglian place-names
84 Events to about 850: The Scots of Dalriada
85 Events to about 850: Place-names according to Bede
86 Events to about 850: Scandinavian place-names and settlements
87 [Page 87]
88 [Page 88]
89 [Page 89]
90 [Page 90]
91 [Page 91]
92 [Page 92]
93 Events to about 850: Viking graves
94 Events to about 850: The Norse in Scotland
95 [Page 95]
96 Events from about 850 to 1460: Scotland from about 842 to 1286
97 [Page 97]
98 [Page 98]
99 [Page 99]
100 [Page 100]
101 Events from about 850 to 1460: The Anglo-Scottish Border
102 [Page 102]
103 Events from about 850 to 1460: Anglo-Scottish relations: David I to Alexander III
104 [Page 104]
105 [Page 105]
106 [Page 106]
107 [Page 107]
108 Events from about 850 to 1460: Edward I in Scotland
109 [Page 109]
110 [Page 110]
111 [Page 111]
112 [Page 112]
113 Events from about 850 to 1460: The succession, diplomacy and war
114 [Page 114]
115 [Page 115]
116 [Page 116]
117 Events from about 850 to 1460: Robert I (1306-29)
118 [Page 118]
119 [Page 119]
120 [Page 120]
121 [Page 121]
122 [Page 122]
123 [Page 123]
124 [Page 124]
125 [Page 125]
126 Events from about 850 to 1460: Anglo-Scottish relations 1329 to 1422
127 [Page 127]
128 [Page 128]
129 [Page 129]
130 [Page 130]
131 [Page 131]
132 Events from about 850 to 1460: James II (1437-60)
133 [Page 133]
134 [Page 134]
135 [Page 135]
136 Events from about 850 to 1460: Scotland and Europe
137 [Page 137]
138 [Page 138]
139 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Major feuds in late medieval Scotland
140 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Anglo-Scottish relations 1460 to 1465
141 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The crises of 1482 and 1488
142 [Page 142]
143 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Anglo-Scottish relations - James IV and the Governor Albany
144 Events from about 1460 to 1707: James V (1513-42)
145 [Page 145]
146 [Page 146]
147 [Page 147]
148 [Page 148]
149 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Anglo-Scottish relations - the 'Rough Wooing' 1544 to 1550
150 [Page 150]
151 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The Reformation parliament 1560
152 [Page 152]
153 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Mary, queen of Scots (1542-67)
154 [Page 154]
155 Events from about 1460 to 1707: James VI (1567-1625)
156 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The civil war 1567 to 1573
157 [Page 157]
158 [Page 158]
159 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The house of Hamilton 1554 to 1573
160 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The civil wars 1639 to 1651
161 [Page 161]
162 [Page 162]
163 [Page 163]
164 [Page 164]
165 [Page 165]
166 [Page 166]
167 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The Pentland Rising of 1666
168 [Page 168]
169 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The Bothwell Brig rebellion 1679
170 [Page 170]
171 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Clan support for the house of Stuart
172 [Page 172]
173 [Page 173]
174 Events from about 1460 to 1707: The Union - support and opposition
175 [Page 175]
176 Events from about 1460 to 1707: Scotland and the New World
177 [Page 177]
178 [Page 178]
179 [Page 179]
180 Administration: Place-dates of royal charters to 1296
181 [Page 181]
182 [Page 182]
183 [Page 183]
184 [Page 184]
185 [Page 185]
186 [Page 186]
187 [Page 187]
188 Administration: Place-dates of Robert I (1306-29)
189 [Page 189]
190 [Page 190]
191 [Page 191]
192 [Page 192]
193 Administration: Place-dates - David II to James V
194 [Page 194]
195 [Page 195]
196 [Page 196]
197 [Page 197]
198 [Page 198]
199 [Page 199]
200 [Page 200]
201 [Page 201]
202 [Page 202]
203 [Page 203]
204 [Page 204]
205 [Page 205]
206 Administration: Earldoms and 'provincial lordships' 1124 to 1286
207 [Page 207]
208 [Page 208]
209 Administration: Shires and thanages
210 [Page 210]
211 Administration: Breitheamh, breive, dempster and deemster
212 Administration: Toiseachdeor
213 Administration: Comhdhail - 'popular' courts
214 Administration: Sheriffdoms
215 [Page 215]
216 [Page 216]
217 Administration: Justice ayres in the late thirteenth century
218 Administration: Burghs in 1300
219 [Page 219]
220 [Page 220]
221 Administration: Forests 1124 to 1286
222 [Page 222]
223 [Page 223]
224 Administration: Baronies, lordships and earldoms in the early 15th century
225 [Page 225]
226 [Page 226]
227 [Page 227]
228 [Page 228]
229 [Page 229]
230 Administration: Sheriffs, stewards and bailies
231 [Page 231]
232 [Page 232]
233 Administration: Justice ayres in the fifteenth century
234 Administration: Burghs 1426 to 1550
235 [Page 235]
236 [Page 236]
237 [Page 237]
238 Administration: Forests 1286 to 1513
239 [Page 239]
240 [Page 240]
241 Administration: The Session
242 [Page 242]
243 Administration: Lords of erection
Seq. Page title
244 Administration: Justices of the peace 1587 to 1663
245 Administration: Circuit courts 1672
246 Administration: Parliament 1660 to 1707
247 [Page 247]
248 [Page 248]
249 [Page 249]
250 [Page 250]
251 [Page 251]
252 [Page 252]
253 Economic development: Burghs
254 [Page 254]
255 Economic development: Royal burghs and burghs of barony
256 [Page 256]
257 [Page 257]
258 Economic development: Burgesses' landed interest
259 Economic development: Trade: wool producing monasteries
260 Economic development: Overseas trade - the Middle Ages to the sixteenth century
261 [Page 261]
262 [Page 262]
263 [Page 263]
264 [Page 264]
265 [Page 265]
266 Economic development: Restructuring urban economies in the later Middle Ages
267 [Page 267]
268 [Page 268]
269 [Page 269]
270 Economic development: Foreign traffice and bullion exports 1331 to 1333
271 [Page 271]
272 [Page 272]
273 [Page 273]
274 [Page 274]
275 [Page 275]
276 [Page 276]
277 [Page 277]
278 [Page 278]
279 [Page 279]
280 [Page 280]
281 [Page 281]
282 [Page 282]
283 Economic development: Destinations of ships from Leith
284 Economic development: Trade with northern Europe - Scottish ports
285 Economic development: Scottish emigration to the Baltic
286 Economic development: Trade with northern Europe - Baltic ports
287 [Page 287]
288 Economic development: Scottish trade in the seventeenth century
289 [Page 289]
290 [Page 290]
291 [Page 291]
292 [Page 292]
293 [Page 293]
294 [Page 294]
295 [Page 295]
296 [Page 296]
297 [Page 297]
298 [Page 298]
299 [Page 299]
300 [Page 300]
301 [Page 301]
302 [Page 302]
303 [Page 303]
304 [Page 304]
305 [Page 305]
306 Economic development: Medieval land assessment
307 [Page 307]
308 [Page 308]
309 Economic development: Medieval rural settlement
310 [Page 310]
311 Economic development: Medieval township economy
312 Economic development: Feuing of church lands in the sixteenth century
313 [Page 313]
314 Economic development: Customary succession in leases
315 [Page 315]
316 Economic development: Enclosures
317 Economic development: Markets and fairs ouside burghs
318 Economic development: Employment
319 Economic development: Growth of manufactories
320 Economic development: Taxation in medieval Scotland
321 [Page 321]
322 [Page 322]
323 [Page 323]
324 [Page 324]
325 [Page 325]
326 [Page 326]
327 [Page 327]
328 Economic development: Burgh farms
329 [Page 329]
330 [Page 330]
331 Economic development: Taxation of burghs 1535 to 1705
332 [Page 332]
333 [Page 333]
334 [Page 334]
335 [Page 335]
336 Economic development: Assessments in burghs 1587
337 [Page 337]
338 Economic development: Burgh tax assessments - Aberdeen and Edinburgh
339 [Page 339]
340 Economic development: Valued rents of burghs 1639
341 [Page 341]
342 [Page 342]
343 Economic development: Hearth tax 1691
344 [Page 344]
345 [Page 345]
346 Economic development: Poll tax 1694
347 [Page 347]
348 Economic development: Prices and wages
349 [Page 349]
350 [Page 350]
351 [Page 351]
352 The church: Early Christianity
353 [Page 353]
354 [Page 354]
355 The church: The post-Viking church
356 [Page 356]
357 [Page 357]
358 [Page 358]
359 The church: Ecclesiastical organisation
360 [Page 360]
361 The church: The Church in north-western Europe
362 The church: Monastic orders
363 [Page 363]
364 The church: Friaries
365 [Page 365]
366 The church: Hospitals
367 [Page 367]
368 The church: Collegiate churches
369 [Page 369]
370 The church: Parish churches about 1300
371 [Page 371]
372 [Page 372]
373 [Page 373]
374 [Page 374]
375 [Page 375]
376 [Page 376]
377 [Page 377]
378 [Page 378]
379 [Page 379]
380 [Page 380]
381 [Page 381]
382 [Page 382]
383 The church: Lands and churches of hte see of St Andrews
384 [Page 384]
385 The church: Lands and churches of Kelso Abbey
386 [Page 386]
387 [Page 387]
388 The church: Appropriations of some parish churches by 1560
389 [Page 389]
390 [Page 390]
391 [Page 391]
392 [Page 392]
393 The church: Church plans about 1120 to 1560
394 [Page 394]
395 [Page 395]
396 [Page 396]
397 [Page 397]
398 [Page 398]
399 The church: Shrines, hermitages and pilgrimages
400 [Page 400]
401 The church: Courts spiritual
402 [Page 402]
403 [Page 403]
404 [Page 404]
405 The church: Ecclesiastical organisation - the early post-Reformation
406 [Page 406]
407 [Page 407]
408 [Page 408]
409 [Page 409]
410 [Page 410]
411 [Page 411]
412 The church: Ecclesiastical organisation - the early seventeenth century
413 [Page 413]
414 The church: Covenanter dominance
415 [Page 415]
416 [Page 416]
417 The church: The Restoration to the Revolution
418 [Page 418]
419 [Page 419]
420 [Page 420]
421 [Page 421]
422 [Page 422]
423 [Page 423]
424 The church: Ecclesiastical organisation - the early eighteenth century
425 [Page 425]
426 [Page 426]
427 The church: Poor relief
428 [Page 428]
429 The church: Roman Catholic recusancy
430 [Page 430]
431 [Page 431]
432 [Page 432]
433 [Page 433]
434 Social and cultural: Landholding, mid-twelfth century
435 Social and cultural: The growth of military feudalism
436 Social and cultural: Perambulations
437 [Page 437]
438 [Page 438]
439 Social and cultural: The Norman network
440 [Page 440]
441 Social and cultural: Anglo-Scottish landholdings before the Wars of Independence
442 [Page 442]
443 [Page 443]
444 [Page 444]
445 Social and cultural: Landed influence in the late fifteenth century
446 [Page 446]
447 [Page 447]
448 [Page 448]
449 Social and cultural: Linguistic changes
450 [Page 450]
451 [Page 451]
452 Social and cultural: Mottes
453 Social and cultural: Moated sites
454 Social and cultural: Castles and strongpoints
455 Social and cultural: Defensible houses
456 Social and cultural: Defence with guns
457 Social and cultural: The crusades
458 Social and cultural: Military orders in Scotland
459 Social and cultural: Schools
460 [Page 460]
461 [Page 461]
462 [Page 462]
463 Regional and local: Innse Gall
464 Regional and local: The Lordship of the Isles
465 [Page 465]
466 [Page 466]
467 [Page 467]
468 Regional and local: The lords of Galloway
469 Regional and local: Galloway - the Douglas estates
470 Regional and local: Orkney and Caithness
471 [Page 471]
472 Regional and local: The Borders from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries
473 Regional and local: The Borders from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries
474 [Page 474]
475 [Page 475]
476 Regional and local: Forests
477 [Page 477]
478 Regional and local: Burghs - the development of Edinburgh 1550 to 1650
479 [Page 479]
480 Regional and local: Settlement in burghs
481 [Page 481]
482 [Page 482]
483 [Page 483]
484 [Page 484]
485 Back cover

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