Anglo-Scottish relations: David I to Alexander III The baronial rebellion against King John enabled Alexander II to repudiate the treaties of 1209 and 1212 and claim the Bordercounties. The map illustrates the strength of the Scots' strategic position v:hen they invaded (Oct. 1215) and assists in following the vicissitudes of the campaign. The 'Northerners' regarded Alexander as a natural ally in their struggle, and Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland were formally adjudged to him by the Twenty-five barons of Magna Carta. The Yorkshire rebels paid Alexander homage on 11 January 1216. But during John's northern drive (Jan.-Feb. 1216), sixteen rebel castles fell, and he conducted a devastating counter-invasion of Scotland. The Scots recovered Carlisle in August; Alexander had his candidate elected to the vacant bishopric; Alan, lord of Galloway, seized north Westmorland. The rebellions of the count of Aumale and the earl of Surrey, whose castles included Skipton, Sandal and Conisbrough, opened the way south, and Alexander marched to Dover, easily the deepest penetration of Englan"d by a hostile Scottish force. About mid-September, he offered homage at Dover to Prince Louis of France, who as claimant to the English throne acknowledged Alexander's right to the three Border counties (but not to Yorkshire). On John's death (Oct. 1216) moderates rallied behind the young Henry 111. The rebel army, including a Scottish contingent, was routed at Lincoln (20 May 1217), and the ground cut from beneath the Scots, whose war aims had· always depended chiefly on the strength of the baronial movement. On I December Alexander relinquished Carlisle; at Northampton by 19 December he returned to the allegiance of the English crown, as lord of the Huntingdon honour and Tynedale. Despite Alexander's greater initial advantages, as in 1173-4 an enterprise confidently begun ended in abject failure, and that helped to introduce new realism into the conduct of AngloScottish relations . • \oldlngham Norham. erwlck Roxburgh. ,:c Warkl!l • Bamburgh Wooler " • Inwick -: -Ri'b:'le Warkworth Rothbury , Mitford_~ LiddeL.-\ Irthingion. Styford[]. [] Newcastle .'if Brampton Prudhoe \ arhs e []Durham L > Cockermo t []Brougham[] Brancepeth. Appleby[] Barnard Castle~~ Egremont Brough[] BO~ Whorlton. Castle\

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