Anglian place-names The earliest English (Anglian) place-names in Scotland cannot be dated before the second quarter of the seventh century AD. Among these are names ending in Old English (OE) -ingham, like Coldingham (Berwickshire), Whittinghame and Tynninghame (East Lothian) and Penninghame (Wigtownshire). Equally early, but remaining productive longer, are names containing OE ham "village, homestead", as, for example, Ednam, Midlem, Oxnam; Smailholm, Yetholm (Roxburghshire), Birgham, Edrom, Kimmerghame, Leitholm (Berwickshire), Morham, Oldham(stocks) (East Lothian), and Smallholm (Dumfriesshire). Unlike ham which ceased to be creative in the formation of place-names before the Middle Ages, OE tun "enclosure, enclosed place" continued to be productive for many centuries. While it is therefore itself not a reliable guide to the chronology of English place-names in Scot Place-names containing ingtun, . ingham, botl, and botl tun WFHN o Name containing ingtun 6 Name containing ingham • Name containing bot! • Name containing botl tun kms o 25 50 75 100 I , o 10 20 30 40 50 60 miles land, it occurs in early names, perhaps till the end of the seventh century or a little later, when combined with -ing-, as in Edrington, Edington, Mersington, Renton, Thirlington, Upsettlington (Berwickshire) and some others. Generics like OE worth "enclosure", as in Polwarth (Berwickshire), Cessford and Judburgh (Roxburghshire), bothl, botl "dwelling", as in Bolton, Eldbotle (East Lothian), Newbatte (Midlothian), Morebattle (Roxburghshire) and Buittle (Kirkcudbrightshire), and wic, (minor) settlement", as in Berwick (now Northumberland), North Berwick (East Lothian), Borthwick (several), Darnick, Fenwick, Hawick (Roxburghshire), Dawick (Peeblesshire), Fishwick (Berwickshire), and Hedderwick (East Lothian, Berwickshire) also occur in this early Anglian stratum. Remarkable and not fully explained is the occurrence of names like Prestwick, Previck and Fenwick in Ayrshire. kms 2,5 100 mites • Names containing wic ... Names containing ham o Name containing worth Place-names containing wic, ham, and worth WFHN

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