Anglo-Scottish relations: David I to Alexander III WiIliam I's policies were to regain the earldom of Northumberland (of which he had been deprived by Henry 11 in 1156) and other northern English counties once ruled by David I, and to maintain Scottish independence. Diplomatic attempts having failed, William allied with Louis VII and supported the rebellion of the "Young King" Henry against Henry 11. William led three expeditions into England (1173-74), with little success, but Earl David helped to win control of the midland counties of England. After capture at Alnwick (1174), William was taken to Normandy. The treaty ofFalaise, confirmed atYork (1175), made Scotland effectively a subject kingdom: Huntingdon was forfeit, and English garrisons stationed at Berwick, Roxburgh and Edinburgh castles. J'7' _ ,../ . -4 J\1 ./ '" lJ/(1i' WJ' Edinburgh Lands of the honour of Huntingdon English influence was seen in help given to William to restore his authority in Galloway and Carrick following revolts, and in intervention over a disputed election to the see of St Andrews. However, in 1185 the honour of Huntingdon was restored, and, on William's arranged marriage to Ermengarde of Beaumont, Edinburgh castle was returned. Richard I, anxious to go crusading, accepted money to cancel the treaty of Falaise and restore Berwick and Roxburgh castles. William met John on three occasions between 1200 and 1207. A crisis over the Scottish destruction ofthe recently built Tweedmouth castle could not be resolved by a conference at Bolton (1209), and at Norham John obtained a ransom, the surrender ofWilliam's daughters, Margaret and Isobel, with a view to their future marriage, and the sons of nobles as hostages. The price of English help to suppress a revolt in Ross (1212) seems to have been a confumation of this treaty and a concession that John should control the marriage of Prince Alexander, who was Berwick knighted by John. The kings last met, in a better Iweedmouth atmosphere, in 1212. Bamburgh kms 100 I 0 I 10 20 I 30 I 50 I 60 miles Anglo-Scottish relations: William 1(1165-1214) WWS 82

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