Anglo-Scottish relations: David I to Alexander III It is natural to place Alexander Ill's reign (1249-86) in the context of the subsequent war of independence. Despite signs of tension such as increased frequency of embassies (1275-78) and discussion of border disputes in 1278, the relationship between England and Scotland was close in Alexander rn's reign, and, between about 1260 and 1286, probably friendlier than at any period because of Alexander's marriage to Henry nI's daughter Margaret (1251). Much political activity in the minority years 1249-about 1260 sprang from Henry's concern for the young couple and for the stability of Scotland. Both political groups, Comyns and Durwards, recognised the need for H~nry's sUP'p,ort. After the minority, there was a very good personal relationship between the two royal families. Another stabilising force was a politically active group of magnates with land in both kingdoms. For example, John de Balliol and Robert de Ros were guardians of the young Scots king and queen (1251-55), Alan Durward served Henry rn in Gascony (1254), had Henry's support for his "takeover" in Scotland in 1255, and took refuge in England after 1257. On five occasions (1257-1261) Roger de Quincy took part in embassies to Scotland. The Bruce, Comyn and Balliol families were represented on Henry's side at the battle of Lewes (1264). John de Vescy accompanied Edward I (1272-1307) on crusade and then was ~-Haddington r------------, a leader of Alexander rn's expedition to the Isle of Man (1275). Edinburg (~) 1265 x 1266 Prince Edward These forces of stability helped to keep in abeyance possi visits (1) Margaret (11) Alexander ble tensions over English claims to suzerainty and border disputes. (L._-,-_______--' Tensions increased after Queen Margaret's death (1275), but it was Embassies of Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland in 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260 and 1261 1278 meeting of Edward I and Alexander III a set of tragic circumstances -the deaths ofAlexander In's children, David (1281), Margaret (1283), and Alexander (1284), and of Alexander himself (1286) -which finally broke a "tie of indissoluble affection". Alexander III knighted by Henry Ill. Marriage of York Alexander to Henry Ill's daughter Margaret Tewkesbury Woodstock 1256 visit of Scottish kingand queen kms o 25 50 75 100 I , I o 10 20 30 40 50 60 miles Anglo-Scottish relations: Alexander III (1249-86)

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