Scotland and Europe The marriages included in these maps are those of the Scottish monarchs, their siblings and their children. The dates used are the regnal dates: thus IGng John's marriage to Isabella de Warenne (x 1281) is included in the second map. Royal bastards are included, though they seem more important politically in the period 1107 to 1286 (map one) rather than later. Second and subsequent marriages are also included. The fust map shows how limited was the scope of royal marriages from 1107 to 1286, England being the main source; even the appearance of France is somewhat misleading, since the two brides -Ermengarde de Beaumont and Yolande de Dreux -were daughters of vassals of the English king. Apart from Norway, which comes in only at the end of the period (marriage of Alexander lU's daughter Margaret to Eric n of Norway), choice is confined to the seaboard of northern Europe. The second map shows even greater limitations: Scotland seems largely to have been turned in on itself. Some of this may be explained partly by the fact that John, Robert I and Robert II were not born heirs to the crown, partly by the marriages of Robert lI's numerous children, and partly by those who married two, three or four times. The wider spread ofconnections shown in the third map is largely the result of the ambitious diplomacy of James n. For Scottish monarchs after 1460 France and Denmark became more important as sources of consorts. DENMARK Kingdom BRITTANY Province (Dreux) Other places (2) Number of marriages into royal family where more than one Number of marriages into baronial family (11) where more than one Two of these daughters were vassals of the king of England " Royal marriages 1292 to 1406 FRANCE (3)* Royal marriages 1107 to 1286 DENMARK (2~ AUSTRIA FRANCE (3) (2) Royal marriages 1406 to 1603 NFS 114

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