Social and cultural Landholding in the mid-twelfth century The map is a snapshot ofthe leading landholding families, including that part of the realm (largely non-Highland) for which adequate the royal house, about the end of David I's reign and the beginning evidence exists. Nevertheless, across much of south-eastern Scotofthat ofMalcolm IV (1153-65). It shows that the native 'pre-feudal' land and here and there in the Clyde valley and in Fife and Gowrie, landowners still dominated the overall pattern of lordship even in incoming feudally tenured families had taken hold strongly. J)~ earlofBuc~ ",l,,, bishop '=' of ~berdeen earl of Mar * brechin~* ,.r-earl of A.S ....; earl of Atholl~* Orm of AbernetnY bishop of D,,"eld /'@i-;'!!!.ofAngus abbot of St Fillan ~*~ay 'Al,.an de Lascelles * Nes son of William bishop of St Andrews O f Ab h arl of Strathearn rm 0 ernet Y r' V-~~F~* ~ * o~~o earl of Menteith if'~0 ",l,,, ~abbotof'Q~" ~. '=' 'Dunfermline "'=' earl of Fife -,~ ~ Cospatric earl of Dunbar Avenel son of Waltheof S . -~ William son W ' waln son Stewart " Bishop of of Freskin " ) of Thor priory of Glasgow / ,s Morville Colgingham Stewart * ) '\ Stewarl Lindsay*' -1* "L. comy~ _ Lindsay I Morville(?) ,Waltheof . *~arlof Dunbar son of Baldwln ... ' Simonsonof .... bl~hop Maelbeth ",l, ,, \ G gow ./ '=' St~wart . . bishop of ",l,,, Swain son Glasgow .'=' Of,Th" ~ ../omy~ Avenel /;"~~ Brus .r ......::~p..:s Ralp son of Dunegal ~-""'---Q~ Ik~e--~Y kms major concentrations of royal demesne o , 50 , , 25 75 100 I i i i i o 10 20 30 40 50 60 Stewart Name of landholder miles Landholding about 1150 to 1160 GWSB 412

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