Anglo-Scottish relations: David I to Alexander III From December 1217 to March 1296 Scotland and England were continuously at peace. This long period of stability, unparalleled in the Middle Ages, owed much to the readiness of Alexander II and Henry ill to settle or play down differences. Alexander's marriage to Henry's sister Joan at York (19 June 1221) reinforced the peace concluded at Northampton in 1217. Most significant was the treaty of York (25 Sept. 1237), a major landmark in the making of the Scots kingdom. Alexander renounced in perpetuity all claims to Northumberland, Cumberland and Westrnorland for lands worth £200, and at last the Scots recognised the futility of continuing to pursue the traditional goal of southern expansion. In 1244 the kingdoms verged on war. Alexander had married secondly Marie de Coucy, a match deemed provocative by Henry III who feared a Franco-Scottish alliance. Another cause of dispute was the fortification of Border castles, probably Hermitage and Caerlaverock as illustrated. But by the treaty of Newcastle upon Tyne (14 Aug. 1244) Alexander promised to refrain from any hostile act against Henry and that his son, the future Alexander Ill, would marry Henry's daughter Margaret. The map cannot cover every important aspect of AngloScottish relations in this period. Many of the barons of Scotland who swore to uphold the treaties ofYork and Newcastle were crossBorder landlords with a vested interest in harmony. The pope, England's overlord and protector, also encouraged peace. Unresolved by negotiation was the key question of the constitutional relationship between Scotland and the English crown. But Scottish independence was not jeopardised, and in 1217, 1237 and 1244 Henry ill implicitly accepted Scotland's status as a separate kingdom. Newcastle Sep!. 1236 o Aug. 1244 (treaty with Henry Ill) Driffield 1::. o York June 1220 Dc!. 1220 June 1221 (marriage to Henry Ill's sister Joan) Dec. 1229 Sep!. 1237 (treaty with Henry Ill) 1::.Fenstanton o Worcester o Northampton July 1223 Dec. 1217 (peace with Henry Ill) o Meeting places of Alexander 11 and Henry III (with dates of conferences) 1::. Manors granted by Henry III to Queen Joan for her maintenance '" Manors granted by Henry III to Alexander 11 under the treaty of York, 1237 • Other places ~ kms 0 25 50 75 100 I , , , ,, , , , ,, 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 miles Anglo-Scottish relations: Alexander 11, 1217 to 1249 KJS

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