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2a Parish of Dryfesdale Co. [County] Dumfries.

Camp of oval formation on Gallaberry Hill is pronounced Roman notwithstanding its formation._ This assumption may have originated in the fact of its proximity to the Clydesdale Roman Road and also with the Name Gallaberry signifying the strength of the Gauls (though vertibly, it might be advanced, that Gaul was a term applied in Britain to any stranger._ Four other Camps on Bengall Moor in the S.En. [Eastern] district occur in a cluster two of which are described by Authorities as Roman and British - respectively and so to have formed counterparts. The other two of minor dimensions are not specified by any authority._ It may be mentioned however that Genl. [General] Roy sets down the whole of the above mentioned Works in his Map of Lower Annandale, but with the exception of Agricola's Camp does not hazard an opinion on the character thereof farther than what may appear in the following quotation "a few miles to the N.W. of this (Birrenswark) is a village called Bengall and near it is a Moor or heath of the same name having a number of ancient Posts scattered about in it and a little higher up is Agricola's Camp on Torwood Moor"._ As nothing definite can be gathered from this author with regard to the minor camps in this district, that attributed by more recent antiquarians has been adopted respectively thereto._ Two small oval works are situate about 1 mile North of those last mentioned, which - in the absence of any authority thereon but that of locals - may reasonably be classified as hill-forts.- Another occurs 2 1/2 miles N.E. of the foregoing of such trifling dimensions and characteristic formation as almost to warrant the conclusion of its being a Danish Fort. _ The whole of these Camps and Forts noticed by authorities are reputed to be 2,000 years old, this important fact being gleaned from the characteristic formation of accoutrements etc found therein._ Sandals curiously wrought and bound round the mouths with leather thongs were found in one of these "Ancient Posts" which were conveyed into England for the Oxford Museum._
The Name "Maxwell's Thorn" applied to a young thorn tree situate on the west side of Dryfe Water near a Ford across that stream is reputed in locality to be a stem from the original Thorn (of which there were two) which commemorated the spot where Lord Maxwell fell at the Battle of Dryfesands._ The original Thorn stood [ ] chains [ ] of that shewn on Plan till 1823 when it was uprooted by the Dryfe, but being recovered was replanted on the spot where the above mentioned young thorn now flourishes._ This Thorn may be said to commemorate also the scene of the Battle which is allowed to have been the greatest of the Feudal Conflicts of Scotland in modern times and which took place in 1593 (7th. December) on Dryfe Sands between the Maxwells of Nithsdale and Johnstons of Annandale aided by the families neighbouring each._ The Maxwells were defeated with the loss of 500, of whom many perished in the River Annan, and some were burnt in Lochmaben or St. Magdalene's Church to which they had fled for protection (see Lochmaben N.B. Page 3) Five Border Towers are reported to have existed within this Parish vizt. [videlicet] at Old Walls or St. Michael's Walls, Kirktown Mains, Nether Place, Myrehead and Daltonhook,_ the only one of which now extant is at Netherplace at the South end of Lockerbie and which is converted into a Police Station (See Page 93) The only other one of which any information on the ground can be obtained is at Kirktown _ Its site however is all that can now be shewn (See Page 42)._ Every research on the ground has been made for the others, but no information can be obtained even [continued on next page]

Transcriber's notes

Space appears to have been left in the handwritten text for the precise location of the "Maxwell's Thorn" to be inserted later, but was not completed.
It is interesting that the writer, in about 1850, appears to consider a battle of 1593 to have occurred in modern times...."the scene of the Battle which is allowed to have been the greatest of the Feudal Conflicts of Scotland in modern times and which took place in 1593 (7th. December)"

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