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perfectly suited to the end in view. Here lies the difficulty,
a difficulty not to be overcome without an earnest desire on
the part of officials and masters to do their duty irrespective
of trouble and with an eye to a sure and certain result rather
than to a saving of expense.

A point may here be noted. I have been told that fevers,
and particularly puerperal fever is more common at the season
when the dung-pits are emptied. I have compared the figure
very carefully and made a note of them for April and May.
I find the mortality is rather under than over the average
monthly bill in these months. Mere bad smells per se do not
cause disease.

The next division of this Report is that which contains
an account of my inquiries and proceedings during the past

I shall take these two heads in turn, and begin with the
inquiries I have conducted.

My first duty was to try to find out the incidence of
disease in the different localities within the County, and for
this purpose I obtained leave from the Registrar-General for
Scotland to consult the local registers in his office. As these
Death Returns were likely to be of permanent value, and, once
begun, could be easily kept up for future reference, I ven-
tured to employ a clerk to make copies of them, beginning at
1885 and coming down to the close of 1890. When written
out they were bound into volumes, each parish separately.
They have proved of great interest and importance, as afford-
ing solid ground for further investigations, and as time passes
they will become more and more useful. I have brought the
books down to the Committee for their inspection, and when
an office has been provided they will always be at the disposal
of any one who is curious in vital statistics. I have made
free use of the tables in the 2nd division of my Report.

My next desire was to make a general survey of the
County, and in going my rounds I had chiefly in view the
sanitary inspection of villages and schools. As to the former,
the County Sanitary Inspector, who accompanied me in several

[Page] 29

of my tours, is, I know, prepared to report very fully. It is
not therefore necessary for me to trouble the Council with
details. I shall content myself with saying that, as far as I
am aware, and I have visited all the more important com-
munities in the County, his notes and criticisms are well
founded. Much, as I have already said, waits to be done in
the ways of a better water supply, thorough drainage, and
organised scavenging, before their condition becomes, from a
public health point of view, even respectable.

In the sanitary condition of schools, for reasons already
stated, I have taken great interest, and I shall now give short
notes on those I have visited, making remarks, chiefly under
the three heads of cubic space and ventilation, water supply,
and provision for dealing with excreta.

Culbokie School. - Fair cubic space; ventilation only
by the windows, which causes cold draughts when the tem-
perature is low; water supply suspicious (I pointed this out
to the Managers at the time the well was dug), being within
a few feet of the site of the privies. The supply fails in
summer. Steps should be taken to protect the well, or
remove it altogether, and to procure a constant supply. The
arrangements connected with the privies are excellent. Mr
Fowler deserves great credit for his interest in securing good
sanitation. There is no lavatory in the school.

Mulbuie School. - Cubic space sufficient, according to
code rules; but the ventilation is deficient in so far as there
is no special means for admitting fresh air other than by the
windows, and no cross current established above so as to ensure
the withdrawal of foul air quickly. There is good water from
a pump in the playground; but no lavatory. The privies
are clean, and in daily use. The urinal would be better to
have a flushing tank provided. A scavenger attends regularly.

Kinkell School. - Ventilation deficient in small class
room. Here and in Conon School there is a system of closed
pipes devised to carry the foul air into a flue, but it is out of
order in both cases, and should be discarded. There are com-
plaints of cold draughts during winter. The privies are clean

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