Selkirkshire, 1957

Page Transcription
selkirk-1957/02_001 THE COUNTY OF SELKIRK [Photograph inserted] Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments of Scotland
selkirk-1957/02_002 IN THEIR Inventory of the Ancient Monuments of Selkirkshire the Com- missioners carry a step further their survey of the Border region, follow- ing their two-volume work on Roxburghshire published in 1956 and a smaller book on Berwick- shire published in 1915. The material has been treated in the same manner as was adopted in Roxburghshire, and in particular the air-photo- graphs of the whole area were scrutinised for traces of earthwork monuments invisible to observers on the ground. An introduction is provided to illustrate the his- torical background and to discuss the wider significance of the archae- ological matter; and further, as Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire are linked by important ties of simi- larity, part of the introduction to the Roxburghshire survey is reprinted in the form of an appendix. The interests of the general reader as well as of the expert have been constantly kept in mind. Price £3 7s. 6d.
selkirk-1957/02_003 [Note] 67[3] A1. INV/15 [Crossed out] [Initialled] W.D.
selkirk-1957/02_004 Selkirkshire
selkirk-1957/02_005 [Photograph inserted] Fig. I. Orans figure from Over Kirkhope (No. 65). Photo National Museum of Antiquities. Frontispiece.
selkirk-1957/02_006 [Coat of Arms] THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF SCOTLAND AN INVENTORY OF THE ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS OF SELKIRKSHIRE WITH THE FIFTEENTH REPORT OF THE COMMISSION [Note] 941 465 [Stamped] May 1963 R2295 HMSO 77/6 PUBLIC LIBRARIES EDINBURGH: HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE 1957
selkirk-1957/02_007 Crown copyright reserved Published by HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE To be purchased from 13A Castle Street, Edinburgh 2 York House, Kingsway, London W.C.2 423 Oxford Street, London W.1 109 St. Mary Street, Cardiff 39 King Street, Manchester 2 Tower Lane, Bristol 1 2 Edmund Street, Birmingham 3 80 Chichester Street, Belfast or through any bookseller Price £3, 7s. 6d. net Printed in Great Britain under the Authority of HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE by T. and A. CONSTABLE LTD., Edinburgh
selkirk-1957/02_008 CONTENTS --PAGE LIST OF PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS -- vi ROYAL WARRANT -- x FIFTEENTH REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION -- xi LIST OF MONUMENTS WHICH THE COMMISSIONERS DEEM MOST WORTHY OF PRESERVATION -- xiii LIST OF MONUMENTS DISCOVERED DURING THE SURVEY OF MARGINAL LANDS (1951-5) -- xiv REGISTER OF MONUMENTS IN SELKIRKSHIRE BY PARISHES -- xix ABBREVIATED TITLES OF REFERENCES -- xxi EDITORIAL NOTES -- xxiv INTRODUCTION TO THE INVENTORY OF THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF SELKIRK- SHIRE -- 1 INVENTORY OF THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF SELKIRKSHIRE -- 31 APPENDICES: A. The Catrail or Picts' Work Ditch -- 126 B. Armorial -- 128 C. Reprint of Part II of the Introduction to the Inventory of Roxburghshire -- 129 GLOSSARY -- 173 INDEX -- 177 a* -- v
selkirk-1957/02_009 LIST OF PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. NO. -- TITLE -- PAGE 1 Orans figure from Over Kirkhope (No. 65) -- Frontispiece 2 Selkirkshire, showing areas added and detached by the Boundary Commission of 1891 -- 1 3 The Forest of Ettrick -- 6 4 Distribution map of Bronze Age monuments -- 17 5 Distribution map of Early Iron Age and Roman monuments -- 19 6 Elibank Castle (No. 13) -- 36 7 Whytebank Tower (No. 16) -- 38 8 Torwoodlee Tower (No. 18) -- 39 9 Torwoodlee (No. 19) -- 40 10 Old Gala House (No. 20) -- 42 11 Fairnilee (No. 21) -- 44 12 Yair (No. 22) -- 46 13 Selkirk Castle (No. 24) -- 48 14 The Haining (No. 25) -- 49 15 Motte, Howden (No. 26) -- 51 16 Oakwood Tower (No. 31) -- 53 17 Kirkhope Tower (No. 32) -- 55 18 Tushielaw Tower and associated buildings (No. 33) -- 56 19 Motte, Phenzhopehaugh (No. 34) -- 57 20 Thirlestane House (No. 36) -- 58 21 Gamescleugh Tower (No. 37) -- 59 22 Dryhope Tower (No. 40) -- 60 23 Blackhouse Tower (No. 41) -- 61 24 Newark Castle (No. 44); site plan -- 62 25 Newark Castle (No. 44) -- 63 FIG. NO. -- TITLE -- PLATE 26 Motte, Howden (No. 26) from S. -- I 27 Elibank Castle (No. 13) from SSW. -- II 28 Torwoodlee Tower (No. 18) from E. -- III 29 Old Gala House (No. 20) from SE. -- IV 30 Fairnilee (No. 21) from S. -- V 31 Oakwood Tower (No. 31) from NW. -- VI 32 -- hall fireplace -- VII 33 -- entrance -- VII 34 -- risp on entrance door -- VII 35 -- from SW. -- VIII -- vi
selkirk-1957/02_041 INTRODUCTION: GENERAL though without success; and 12 years later, when Robert Scott, stocking-weaver and wool-comber, proposed to set up in the burgh, the Council re- sponded to his request for help by providing a house for him, feeling that his settlement there would be for the good of the town. ¹ By the end of the century the writer of the Statistical Account of Scotland was able to report the establishment of an incle ² manu- factory employing fifty hands, a stocking manu- factory on a small scale and a tannery near by. ³ There was little change at the time of the New Statistical Account, which mentions a fulling mill but reports that the incle manufactory has ceased. ⁴ It was only in the years immediately following this that the influx of manufacturers from Galashiels brought an import- ant mechanised textile trade to the burgh. ⁵ 1 Ibid., sub anno. 2 A kind of linen tape, or thread from which this is made. 3 Stat. Acct., ii (1792), 438 f. 4. THE BURGH OF GALASHIELS Galashiels, the only other burgh in the county, has not the antiquity of Selkirk. Originally a forest stead, it formed part of the estates of the Pringle family in the 16th century and was created a burgh of barony in 1599. ⁶ In 1632 it passed with other Pringle pro- perty to the Scotts of Gala, who retained their superiority of the burgh until 1850. The rise of modern Galashiels, however, is due almost entirely to the establishment there of the woollen cloth in- dustry at the end of the 18th century, the Gala Water providing power for the mills. The town expanded rapidly in the following century and became a Parliamentary burgh in 1868. 4 N.S.A., iii (Selkirkshire), 4. 5 Craig-Brown. Selkirkshire, ii, 178 ff. 6 Ibid., i, 484. [Page] 14
selkirk-1957/02_042 PART II . THE MONUMENTS Throughout the prehistoric period, and indeed well into historic times, Selkirkshire was, by virtue of its geographical position, poor soil and uncongenial climate a remote and relatively unimportant back- water. Hemmed in on three sides by an almost con- tinuous chain of mountains and high moorland, whose few natural outlets were of little account until the modern high-way system was laid down, the greater part of the region was in fact virtually a cul-de-sac only easily accessible from the east. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that structural remains earlier in date than the Middle Ages are com- paratively few in number, and are mainly to be found in the more fertile uplands at the E. end of the county, where, in the absence of any physical barrier corre- sponding with the present administrative dividing- line, they form an integral part of the W. Roxburgh- shire series. The cultural unity embracing the adjacent areas of both counties in t he early times makes it un- necessary to repeat here what has recently been stated at length in the Inventory of Roxburghshire regarding the background against which the prehistoric,, Roman and Dark Age monuments must in turn be viewed; in the following introductory articles under these heads attention is accordingly focussed for the most part on the purely local significance of the remains, while Part II of the Introduction to the Inventory of Roxburghshire is reproduced in Appendix C to illustrate their general setting. The sections that deal with the mediaeval and later with their Roxburghshire counterparts in the same Appendix I. THE BRONZE AGE (i) Cairns, ETC. Although the small groups of food-gatherers who represent the first colonists of Selkirkshire were established in the county round about the end of the third millennium B.C; (1) no structures attributable to these peoples. or to the succeeding Neolithic agr- cultural communities, have so far been recognised in the county; and the earliest monuments that come within the scope of this Inventory are three, or pos- sibly four, short cists, and eleven round cairns, (2) all of which may be ascribed with certainty or probability to earlier phases of the Bronze Age (circa 1700)- 1200 B.C.) A date within the same general limits would also be appropriate fort he single standing stones Nos. 171, 172 and 173, the stone setting on Bught Rig (No. 203)and the unenclosed stone-walled hut circles at Kirkstead (No. 132), Dryhope (No. 133), and Cavers Hill (No. 134), if it was certain that the structures in question were prehistoric, but their status is as present undetermined. The standing stones, all of which are of modest size, may in fact be nothing more than mediaeval boundary- marks, as on Woll Rig ( No. 170), or landmarks erected for the guidance of drovers or local herds, while the frag- mentary and disturbed condition of the setting on Bught Rig precludes any decision as to its origin or purpose in the absence of excavation. And whereas unenclosed round huts superficially similar to those at Dryhope and Kirkstead are known to have been inhabited in the Early Bronze Age, (3) this primitive type of dwelling had a long life and appears to have remained in use in SE. Scotland at least until the Middle Ages. (4) The only relic recovered from any of the cist burials is a Food Vessel from the old churchyard at Gala shiels No. 165), and likewise little information is available regarding the contents of the cairns. The fragments of pottery found on the floor of the cairn on Easterhill Head ( NO. 63), which covered a cist, cannot now be traced, although several cup-marked
selkirk-1957/02_043 PART II . THE MONUMENTS Throughout the prehistoric period, and indeed well into historic times, Selkirkshire was, by virtue of its geogrpahical position, poor soil and uncongenial climate a remote and relatively unimportant back- water. Hemmed in on three sides by an almost con- tinuous chain of mountains and high moorland, whose few natural outlets were of little account until the modern high-way system was laid down, the greater part of the region was in fact virtually a cul-de-sac only easily accessible from the east. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that structural remains earlier in date than the Middle Ages are com- paratively few in number, and are mainly to be found in the more fertile uplands at the E. end of the county, where, in the absence of any physical barrier corre- sponding with the present administrative dividing- line, they form an integral part of the W. Roxburgh- shire series. The cultural unity embracing the adjacent areas of both counties in t he early times makes it un- necessary to repeat here what has recently been stated at length in the Inventory of Roxburghshire regarding the background against which the prehistoric,, Roman and Dark Age monuments must in turn be viewed; in the following introductory articles under these heads attention is accordingly focussed for the most part on the purely local significance of the remains, while Part II of the Introduction to the Inventory of Roxburghshire is reproduced in Appendix C to illustrate their general setting. The sections that deal with the mediaeval and later with their Roxburghshire counterparts in the same Appendix I. THE BRONZE AGE (i) Cairns, ETC. Although the small groups of food-gatherers who represent the first colonists of Selkirkshire were established in the county round about the end of the third millennium B.C; (1) no structures attributable to these peoples. or to the succeeding Neolithic agr- cultural communities, have so far been recognised in the county; and the earliest monuments that come within the scope of this Inventory are three, or pos- sibly four, short cists, and eleven round cairns, (2) all of which may be ascribed with certainty or probablity to earlier phases of the Bronze Age (circa 1700)- 1200 B.C.) A date within the same general limits would also be appropriate fort he single standing stones Nos. 171, 172 and 173, the stone setting on Bught Rig (No. 203)and the unenclosed stone-walled hut circles at Kirkstead (No. 132), Dryhope (No. 133), and Cavers Hill (No. 134), if it was certain that the structures in question were prehistoric, but their status is as present undetermined. The standing stones, all of which are of modest size, may in fact be nothing more than mediaeval boundary- marks, as on Woll Rig ( No. 170), or landmarks erected for the guidance of drovers or local herds, while the frag- mentary and disturbed condition of the setting on Bught Rig precludes any decision as to its origin or purpose in the absence of excavation. And whereas unenclosed round huts superficially similar to those at Dryhope and Kirkstead are known to have been inhabited in the Early Bronze Age, (3) this primitive type of dwelling had a long life and appears to have remained in use in SE. Scotland at least until the Middle Ages. (4) The only relic recovered from any of the cist burials is a Food Vessel from the old churchyard at Gala shiels No. 165), and likewise little information is available regarding the contents of the cairns. The fragments of pottery found on the floor of the cairn on Easterhill Head ( NO. 63), which covered a cist, cannot now be traced, although several cup-marked

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