the head of a barony. In size. too, these structures vary greatly, and in most cases
the number of occupants must have been small, as the motes represent, at least in
the main, the incoming of Norman settlers and their planting a fixed footing in the
country. Necessarily their quarters, however strong, cannot have been of great
dimensions. Some examples may well be due to local lords in imitation of the master-
ful incomers. Chronologically the type at least must be assigned to the 12th
century as the time of its introduction. Noteworthy in their relation to these places
is the occurrence of such names as "Boreland" and "Ingleston" (i.e. English-town)
in the vicinity. The former stands for the "bordland," that is the land provisioning
the "board" or "table" of the lord, while the latter represents a settlement of
retainers or followers. ¹
Of the earlier type of Norman stone castle, the tower and courtyard which re-
peated in stone the features of the mote-and-bailey wooden castle, no contemporary
example exists or is likely ever to have existed in Dumfriesshire, though this type of
residence never died out, and examples of a late date are plentiful in Scotland and in
England. The form of stone castle which immediately succeeded the timber type
in Scotland is that of the wall of enceinte with flanking towers exampled at Tibbers
(No. 157), where it crowns the original mote, Auchencass (No.384), and the first
Caelaverock (No. 33 (1)). We have perhaps evidence of the planting of such castles of
a new type towards the end of the 13th century in references to Clifford's "house"
at Tibbers "just begun" in 1298, ² and the new place of "Seneware" (Sanquhar)
in 1296. ³ If not the main work, these are at least buildings within it. The examples
cited follow the contemporary form of the English late 13th-century castle. The earlier
Caerlaverock, however, though apparently belonging to the same class, must have
been older than the others, if it was the place besieged and captured by Edward I.
in 1300. These late 13th-century structures are not upon lofty sites, with the
exception of Tibbers, where the original mound was strong enough to bear the
heavier structure, but depend for strength of situation upon surrounding marshy
land. Within this structure of wall and towers, and apart from the residential
facilities afforded by the towers, all buildings of a domestic or service character
would probably, in the first instance at least, be substantially of wood, for which,
however, in general, at a later stage, buildings of stone less massive in character than
the defensive walls and towers were substituted.
It will be observed that in none of these 13th-century examples is there any
dominating tower or donjon as the main defence and final refuge of the garrison.
This feature had for the time gone out of military fashion in France and England, owing
partly to the development of siege craft, partly to the desire of occupants to have
more space and more comfortable quarters in which to stand a siege. By the rounded
towers at corners of the enclosure a flanking fire was secured for the curtain walls,
while a marshy site or broad wet ditch on the level, or a spit of land in a lake, inter-
posed an effective obstacle to the mining operations of a besieging force. Caerlaverock
(No. 33 (2)), Auchencass (No. 384), Morton (No. 510), and Lochmaben (No.445 (2))
are all in their degree examples of this class. Special attention is given to the gateway
as the vulnerable place in the structure. Its outer opening is flanked with round
towers and is continued in a vaulted passage. At Auchencass, however, there is the
simpler feature of an entrance past the corner tower turning upon itself at right
angles, a donjon type. At Caerlaverock additions and elaborations from time to

1 But cf. reference to "Engless men" on p. xlii.
2 Bain's Calendar, ii. No. 1005.
3 Ibid., ii. p. 206.

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