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the kingdom but also of its language, with probably the infusion of a fresh Gaelic
element in the topography, where appear names such as Dunscore (sgór=a sharp rock),
Duncow (coll=hazel), Lag (=hollow), the old Dunberton (i.e. Briton) in Lochmaben
parish, Glencairn and the other "glen" compounds. Gaelic ousted Welsh, and was
still spoken in Carrick in the 16th century, before it in turn was ousted by Scots.
The period of the invasions subsequent to the time of Kentigern and his suc-
cessors is painted in very sombre colours in the Inquisition of David concerning the
lands of old possessed by the bishopric of Glasgow, the date of which is the first
quarter of the 12th century. Insurrections arose, we are told, the Church was
destroyed, lands were wasted, and good men driven into exile. Then into the desolate
country poured diverse tribes of different nations, unlike in race, language, and
customs, among whom paganism prevailed over the Christian faith. Probably in
all this there is not only compression of facts but some exaggeration in the interests
of the reforms of Prince David. ¹



It was David I. who left the deepest mark on Dumfriesshire. Before coming
to the throne he held a position in southern Scotland, as "Prince of Cumbria," which
cannot be defined in relation to either power or territory. It seems, however, to
have been an actual division of the kingdom, though only his brother Alexander
was known as king. In 1124 David himself succeeded to the throne, and so reunited
the realm.
Virtually, by training and preference, David belonged to that international race
whom we know as Normans. He did two big things in the south-west. He re-
constituted the bishopric of Glasgow, which included the old Strathclyde kingdom,
and he settled the Yorkshire family of Bruce in Annandale (c. 1124.) The
Bruce domain included "Estrahanent" (Annandale) and all the land from the
boundary of Dunegal of Nithsdale to the boundary of Randolph "Meschin" (="the
younger"), who possessed Cumberland; that is, as far at least as Gretna. The
principal seat of the family at first seems to have been Annan, which was a con-
venient centre for communication with their Yorkshire lands, but Lochmaben and
probably Moffat were also residences. In the original charter Robert de Brus is,
by implication, licensed to erect a "castellum," ² but at what place is not indicated.
Round the greater light of Bruce gathered the lesser lights of Annandale, some,
like their overlord, Norman immigrants, others apparently of the earlier local stock.
Names of witnesses attached to Bruce charters of the end of the 12th and the begin-
ning of the 13th century are these, being names which were to be long familiar in
the history of the shire: Robert de Hodalmis or Hodelm (Hoddom), Humphrey
del Gardine (Jardine), William de Herez (Herries), Edward de Hodalmia (Hoddom),
Hugh de Corri, Robert de Crossbi, Roger de Kirkpatrick, Malcolm Loceard,
Sir Gilbert de Jonston, David de Torthorwald. Of these the Johnstones rose to
greatest importance, but their early family records perished in a burning of Loch-
wood by Maxwells in 1585 (see No. 315). "Dunegal of Stranith," who in the

1 Registrum Epis. Glasg., p. 5. Cf. also Scots Lore (1895), p. 36 ff., and Lawrie's Early Scottish Charters, No. 4.
2 See Neilson in Trans. Dumf. and Gall. Antiq. Soc., 1914-15, p. 58.

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