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2 Parish of Wamphray County of Dumfries.

altitude of 2,500 feet above Sea level._ The principal Stream is the River Annan which forms the Wn. [Western] boundary. Wamphray Water a considera[ble] Stream from near the northern extremity of the Parish flows 3 1/2 miles Southward between the mountain ridges and then running for 2 1/2 miles westward falls into the River Annan. _ Numerous other tributary streams take their rise in the interior._ There are several mimic Cascades on the smaller streams._ Bellcraig Linn on the Northern boundary, Dub's Cauldron, Dub's Pot and Dub's Pan all in proximity of each other in Wamphray Water are famed for the romantic and picturesque scenery which surrounds them._ The Caledonian Railway traverses the south western division, on which there is a small station for the convenience of the Parish. _ There are about seven or eight miles of Turnpike Road, consisting of the old line from Glasgow to Carlisle, togetrher with that which leaves it about [the] middle of the Parish towards Langholm. _ There are no minerals wrought nor manufactory carried on, the district is strictly rural, there being neither [town] nor village, with the exception of Newton a hamlet in the south-western district in which there is an Infant School. _ The Parish Church situate [in] the central district is a long and narrow building, - about 53" [feet?] long by 18" [feet?] wide, which accommodates 200 sitters. It is very old, but the exact date of [erecting] has not been ascertained. _ There is also an United Presbyterian Church _ a small plain structure situate about 1/2 mile S.W. [South West] from Newton._ There is also one Parish [School] about 1/2 mile south-west from the Parish church._ The Population of the Parish is about 530._
"There appears to have been a Roman Road for four or five miles through this Parish, from North to South, near [to the] old road from Glasgow to Carlisle, which is still a turnpike road, and where in some places pavement stones are occasionally dug up, especially on [the] lower grounds where there are a few houses forming a small village called Gilgal or Newton._ Along this line too there are several large stones , about five or [six] feet in height, fixed firmly and perpendicularly in the ground, and supposed to have been placed there by the Romans, probably for measuring distances" _ [Statistics] The track of the Roman Road as pointed out on the ground has accordingly been shewn on the existing Turnpike Road and which in one or two instances diverges [a] little to the West therefrom._ The stones as mentioned in the above quotation have also been shewn, which being in their natural state, without the mark of any tool, they can only be classified as what are traditionally termed standing stones, and in the absence of any authority thereon and their want of inscription or [sculp]turing (as was usually discovered on such stones erected by the Romans to bespeak the prayers of passengers) it is probable that they were erected subsequent to the Ro[man] occupation, but for what purpose cannot be conjectured.* Several Camps or Forts have been shewn, but their origin is doubtful. _ The Statistics say, "several t[races] of camps supposed by some to be Roman, by others British are also visible in this Parish." Towards the East side of Parish there are traces of a square fortification which may from its formation be classified as a Roman Camp. _ The others from their round or oval formation are pronounced in locality to be British Forts, - [though] it may be remarked that in one instance the word Burian is written to one of them on an old Estate map, a word which signifies a kind of fortification _ used during border feuds for the protection of cattle. _ The site of a Druidical Circle has been shewn, three of which antiquities are stated to have existed in this Parish._ [Site] of an old Tower called Wamphray Place and Leithenhall has been pointed out near the centre of the Parish, which Tower belonged to the Johnstone family ._ The site of an old Chapel - of which nothing is known - beyond that at an early date there was a considerable population in its vicinity, is shewn on the West [bank] of Wamphray Water._
* The following quotation from the Introduction to the Gazetteer of Scotland may be here given as confirmatory of the true character "Standing Stones being here assigned to these [objects.] Numerous stones of memorial or rude pillars, apparently very ancient and raised by the same people as the Cat-Stanes exist in every district, and in allusion to their upright position are trad[itionally] called Standing-Stones; they are in their natural state without the mark of any tool, and of course are very various in form; they frequently appear single and frequently also in groups of [two], three, four, and even a greater number, and in general from their wanting of inscriptions and sculpturing, they have failed to transmit the events which they were reared to commemorate."
Augt. [August] 1857.

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