List of names as written Various modes of spelling Authorities for spelling Situation Description remarks
RUTHWELL (continued) [Continued from page 1]
West there is a large tract of Lochar Moss which resting on a clayey Soil mixed with Sand shews it to have been at one time under the Action of the Sea. The Southern district is Merse ground, which is Composed of a Clayey Sand, - termed in the district Sleech, beyond which, stretches the Dull and monotonous expanse of BlacKshaw BanK or the Solway Sands. The Arable land is on an Average productive, - large portions of Lochar Moss are Annually reclaimed by Leasees of Farms, for which an Annual DrawbacK from the rent of 10/., [£0.10.0] is Allowed by the Earl of Mansfield, for every Acre so improved. Some Good land has also been reclaimed along the shore of the Solway, And it has been Calculated that the entire Merse of 1,000 Acres Could be reclaimed at a trifling expense. Farm Steadings are very inconvenient most of which are even in a Dilapidated state and not at all in Accordance with the Advanced state of agriculture of the district. There are no prominent elevations; the Parish is however well watered by Streams and Springs, of which Lochar Water forming the Wn [Western] Boundary is the most Considerable and which forms An Estuary at its entrance into the Solway Firth, the Course along the Sands of which has a shifting Channel, - Brow and Hardgrave Burns and Pow Water running through the inland parts of Parish are also considerable Streams, - of the Springs Brow Well is noticeable as a Chalybeate, situate near to the beach, it is of Considerable repute and resort. The Solway washes the Parish on the South which by the recession of its tides exposes as far as the eye can reach the barren and cheerless Waste of Blackshaw Sands. The Manufacture of Salt from the Sleech was extensively carried on under certain immunities granted by James VI, neither this nor any other Manufacture is now Carried on, no minerals are worked, but from the Similarity of many of its geological indications to those of Cumberland, Coal is stated to exist. LimeStone was at one time extensively worKed in many localities, but from its Coarseness has been superseded by finer descriptions from other localities. The Glasgow and South-Western Railway from near the Northern point of Parish traverses S,E, by E, [South East by East] a Distance of about 3 miles. The Turnpike Road from Dumfries to Annan enters also near the N. [North] point and runs obliquely S.E, [South East] for 3 miles. This Parish may therefore be called entirely rural. There are two small villages Ruthwell and Clarencefield. The former is near the centre of the Eastern district, which consists of a double row of one storey houses flanked by small gardens, all of which are in tolerable repair. Its general aspect however is dwarfish and cheerless. Population 200. It was made a Burgh of Barony by James VI, with the privilege of holding fairs and a weekly market, but it is doubtful if any advantage was ever taken of this grant. Clarencefield on the Dumfries and Annan Road about 1 mile N.N.W [North North West] from Ruthwell consists of one row of buildings some of which are two Storeys high all in good repair. Its Appearance is tidy and cheerful, - with a Southern exposure and its vicinity to the Brow Well and Sea Coast it is a place of some resort for invalids. In it are a Post Office, Parish School and Inn. Its population may be about 140, The Parish Church 1/2 mile North from Ruthwell is a plain and dwarfish looking building with a very small belfry, having nothing externally or internally worthy of notice but the cenotaph inside of the late Dr [Doctor] Henry Duncan. Patron the Earl of Mansfield. Stipend £262. 18/10d [£262.18.10] Glebe value £60. The Parish School in Clarencefield is a plain building but substantial and Commodious, the Average attendance at which is 160. Salary £34.4/5. [£34.4.5] with fees. Parish population 1,060.
The principal Antiquity in this Parish is a Runic Monument situate in the Orchard attached to the Parish Manse. It consists of a Column 14 or 15 feet high inscribed partly with Runic and partly with Roman characters and emblems and is believed to be almost the only undisputed vestige of Anglo-Saxon Sculpture in Britain. Several Antiquarians have supposed it to have been Constructed by the followers of Halfden the Dane who made
[Continued on page 2]

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[page] 1a
Parish of Ruthwell -- Co [County] Dumfries

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